September 2006, Volume 36 Number 9 , p 17 - 17
SNOW, MICHELLE RN, BSN, MSHR, MSPH
ABOUT 40,000 CASES of salmonella illness, a bacterial infection characterized by diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and abdominal cramps, are reported in the United States annually. The two most common strains are Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis . Both thrive in the intestinal tracts of many animals and can be transmitted via the oral-fecal route; S. enteritidis can also be transmitted via undercooked eggs .
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the number of salmonella infections may be underreported by more than 30 times because most people recover uneventfully without treatment. However, salmonella infection can be life-threatening in the young, old, and immunocompromised.
Diagnosis and treatment
Most patients develop diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection. Illness typically lasts 4 to 7 days.
Salmonella is diagnosed by stool culture or, if the infection has progressed ...