March 2006, Volume 36 Number 3 , p 73 - 73
SNOW, MICHELLE RN, BSN, MSHR, MSPH
SALMONELLA TYPHI ( S. typhi) is the bacterium responsible for typhoid fever. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 400 cases are reported in the United States each year; most of these are associated with travel to developing countries.
S. typhi lives in the gastrointestinal tract and bloodstream of people who are acutely ill and those who are asymptomatic chronic carriers. It's transmitted via the fecal-oral route, usually through contact with contaminated food or water.
Although uncommon in industrialized nations, typhoid fever is endemic in areas where sanitation is poor. Vaccination helps protect against the disease, but the most important safeguards are good food handling practices and water sanitation.
Recognizing the signs
Signs and symptoms of typhoid fever include a persistently high fever, headache, malaise, lethargy, skin rash, loss of appetite, hepatosplenomegaly, and bradycardia. Older ...